Seismoionospheric fountain-effect as analogue of active space experiment

Title: Seismoionospheric fountain-effect as analogue of active space experiment
Authors: Depueva, A. Kh.; Ruzhin, Yu. Ya.
Affiliation: AA(IZMIRAN, Moscow Region, Russia), AB(IZMIRAN, Moscow Region, Russia)
Publication: Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177), vol. 15, no. 12, p. (12)151-(12)154 (AdSpR Homepage)
Publication Date: 00/1995
Category: Geophysics
Origin: STI
NASA/STI Keywords: EARTHQUAKES, EQUATORIAL ATMOSPHERE, F REGION, F 2 REGION, FORECASTING, IONOSPHERIC DRIFT, PLASMA DRIFT, SEISMOLOGY, ANOMALIES, ELECTRIC FIELDS, IONOGRAMS, IONOSPHERIC SOUNDING, PLANETARY MAGNETIC FIELDS, SATELLITE SOUNDING
DOI: 10.1016/0273-1177(95)00036-E
Bibliographic Code: 1995AdSpR..15..151D

Abstract

Space investigation includes modeling and initiation of natural processes in ionospheric-magnetospheric plasma by active experimental methods with artificial influence as a specific part. For the first time we present here the possibility of triggering the unique equatorial ionosphere phenomeon known as fountain-effect by lithospheric processes before and earthquake. Anomalous influence of earthquake preparation processes with epicenter close to magnetic equator on latitudinal distribution of f(sub 0) – F-region penetration frequencies and spread-F is discussed and considered by us as an analog of an active experiment. Using Alouette-1 data it is shown that approximately one day before the earthquake f(sub 0) F2 dependence on magnetic latitude looks like a double-crest curve with minimum close to epicenter. Simultaneously oblique and spread traces appeared at topside ionograms. The effect is evident during evening hours. Such kind of f(sub 0) F2-dependence is unusual and is not observed during the preceding days, nor some days later. So, a possible reason for the observations might be connected with generation of an anomalous electric field near the epicenter during earthquake preparation stage, which initiates a phenomenon similar to the natural fountain-effect.

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Risk Consistency and Synergy in Multihazard Design

Open access fulltext pdf qst000844.pdf

NIST Double Jeopardy: Building Codes May Underestimate Risks Due to Multiple Hazards

ScienceDaily Double Jeopardy: Building Codes May Underestimate Risks Due to Multiple Hazards

UPI Study: Disasters overwhelm building codes

J. Structural Eng. 137, 844 (2011); doi:10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943-541X.0000335 (6 pages)

Chiara Crosti1, Dat Duthinh, M.ASCE2, and Emil Simiu, F.ASCE3

1Doctoral candidate, Dept. of Structural and Geotechnical Engineering, Univ. of Rome “La Sapienza,” Via Eudossiana 18, Rome 00184, Italy.
2Research Structural Engineer, Materials Science and Engineering Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8611 (corresponding author). E-mail: dduthinh@nist.gov
3NIST Fellow, Building and Fire Research Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8611.

(Submitted 6 August 2009; accepted 26 September 2010; posted ahead of print 21 October 2010)

Abstract: Current design procedures in the United States use the envelope of individual hazard demands on a structure to ensure safety
against multiple hazards. A difficulty in multihazard design for wind and earthquake is that the load and resistance factor method makes use of
different design philosophies developed by different subdisciplines. Seismic design explicitly allows for inelastic behavior. In contrast, wind
design assumes that, before application of a resistance factor less than unity, the limit state is defined by the development of the first plastic
hinge in a structural member. This paper focuses on the issue of risk consistency in multihazard design, and shows that, in spite of this
difficulty, it is possible to quantify the risks of arriving at a particular lateral drift state for structures exposed to multiple nonsimultaneous
hazards and to compare them to the risks for the same structures subjected to a single hazard. A second focus is the issue of multihazard design
synergy. It has been pointed out that redetailing a building to current seismic codes can increase its resistance to blast and that structural
efficiency and life-cycle cost are influenced by multihazard considerations. This paper shows that, for the case study of a 10-story steel-frame
building, the use of reduced beam section (RBS) connections, intended to enhance ductility in seismic design, does not reduce the risk of
structural damage caused by exposure to wind alone or exposure to wind or earthquakes. DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)ST.1943-541X.0000335.
© 2011 American Society of Civil Engineers.
CE Database subject headings: Earthquakes; Hazards; Risk management; Steel frames; Wind loads; Seismic design; Structural safety.
Author keywords: Earthquakes; Moment-resisting connections; Multihazard design; Partially rigid frames; Risk consistency; Seismic
design; Steel frames; Wind.

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The blog versus big brother: new and old information technology and political repression, 1980-2006

The blog versus big brother: new and old information technology and political repression, 1980-2006

Authors: Lucia Liste Muntildeoza; Indra de Soysab

Abstract

Information and communications technologies (ICTs) prominently feature in the current wave of globalisation. Sceptics of globalisation suggest that the new technology will hamstring governments from acting in the interests of ordinary people and for furthering communitarian values, leading to demobilisation of reform movements and empowering powerful capitalistic elites. Others suggest that the new technologies will empower people at the expense of states, opening up public space for diversity of opinions and constraining the repressive tendencies of states and bureaucracies. Moreover, the new technologies may also allow mass dissent to mobilise more easily and hamstring the repressive power of states due to transparency and global audience costs. We address the issue by specifically assessing the effects of older technologies relative to new ones, controlling for time independently. We find very clear results suggesting that new ICTs, particularly access to the internet and mobile phones, are associated with better human rights, whereas access to televisions and fixed phone lines are associated with worse human rights. It seems that the new ICTs are qualitatively better for human rights than the old ones. Our results are robust to a host of different controls, testing methods and to the inclusion of time trends as a separate variable. The results taken together do not support pessimistic arguments about how new technologies can raise the level of dangerous dissent and provoke harsher human rights practices by governments.
Keywords: globalisation; ICTs; human rights; new technology; old technology

Affiliations: a Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway
b Director of Globalization Research, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU); and Associate Scholar, Center for the Study of Civil War (CSCW), Peace Research Institute,
DOI: 10.1080/13642987.2010.518729
Published in: journal The International Journal of Human Rights
Publication Frequency: 8 issues per year
First Published on: 08 December 2010
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Journal of Nanoparticle Research
An Interdisciplinary Forum for Nanoscale Science and Technology
10.1007/s11051-010-0149-2

Research Paper

Ferritin as a photocatalyst and scaffold for gold nanoparticle synthesis

Jeremiah D. Keyes1, Robert J. Hilton1, Jeffrey Farrer2 and Richard K. WattContact Information

(1) Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Brigham Young University, C-210 Benson Building, Provo, UT 84602, USA
(2) Department of Physics and Astronomy, Brigham Young University, N283 ESC Building, Provo, UT 84602, USA

Contact Information Richard K. Watt
Email:

Received: 18 June 2010  Accepted: 8 November 2010  Published online: 21 November 2010

Abstract

The ferrihydrite mineral core of ferritin is a semi-conductor capable of catalyzing oxidation/reduction reactions. This report shows that ferritin can photoreduce AuCl4 to form gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). An important goal was to identify innocent reaction conditions that prevented formation of AuNPs unless the sample was illuminated in the presence of ferritin. TRIS buffer satisfied this requirement and produced AuNPs with spherical morphology with diameters of 5.7 ± 1.6 nm and a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak at 530 nm. Size-exclusion chromatography of the AuNP–ferritin reaction mixture produced two fractions containing both ferritin and AuNPs. TEM analysis of the fraction close to where native ferritin normally elutes showed that AuNPs form inside ferritin. The other peak eluted at a volume indicating a particle size much larger than ferritin. TEM analysis revealed AuNPs adjacent to ferritin molecules suggesting that a dimeric ferritin–AuNP species forms. We propose that the ferritin protein shell acts as a nucleation site for AuNP formation leading to the AuNP-ferritin dimeric species. Ferrihydrite nanoparticles (~10 nm diameter) were unable to produce soluble AuNPs under identical conditions unless apo ferritin was present indicating that the ferritin protein shell was essential for stabilizing AuNPs in aqueous solution.

Keywords Gold nanoparticles – Ferritin – Nanoparticle synthesis – Photochemistry – Photoreduction

 

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Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11051-010-0149-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Electronic supplementary material
Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

11051_2010_149_moesm1_esm.pdf

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Laski, Harold J., DECLINE OF THE PROFESSIONS, THE , Harper’s Monthly Magazine, 171 (1935:June/Nov.) p.676

Laski, Harold J., DECLINE OF THE PROFESSIONS, THE , Harper’s Monthly Magazine, 171
(1935:June/Nov.) p.676

Title: DECLINE OF THE PROFESSIONS, THE

Author: Laski, Harold J.

Article ID: 5128-1935-171-00-000011

Journal: Harper’s Monthly Magazine

Issue: 171 (1935:June/Nov.) p.676

Alternative Title: Harper’s new monthly magazine / June 1850-Nov.1900
Harper’s monthly magazine; (cover title: Harper’s magazine) / Dec. 1900-May 1939
Harper’s magazine / June 1939-Feb.1973
Harper’s.

ISSN: 1045-7143

Journal Subjects: Humanities (General)

Number of Pages: 10

Laski, Harold J., DECLINE OF THE PROFESSIONS, THE , Harper\’s Monthly Magazine, 171 (1935:June/Nov.) p.676

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Laski, Harold J., WORD TO THE REPUBLICANS, A , Harper’s Monthly Magazine, 171 (1935:June/Nov.) p.513

Laski, Harold J., WORD TO THE REPUBLICANS, A , Harper’s Monthly Magazine, 171
(1935:June/Nov.) p.513

Title: WORD TO THE REPUBLICANS, A

Author: Laski, Harold J.

Article ID: 5128-1935-171-00-000079

Journal: Harper’s Monthly Magazine

Issue: 171 (1935:June/Nov.) p.513

Alternative Title: Harper’s new monthly magazine / June 1850-Nov.1900
Harper’s monthly magazine; (cover title: Harper’s magazine) / Dec. 1900-May 1939
Harper’s magazine / June 1939-Feb.1973
Harper’s.

ISSN: 1045-7143

Journal Subjects: Humanities (General)

Number of Pages: 11

Laski, Harold J., WORD TO THE REPUBLICANS, A , Harper\’s Monthly Magazine, 171 (1935:June/Nov.) p.513

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J Reprod Med. 2007 Jun;52(6):521-5.
Therapeutic value of trichloroacetic acid in the treatment of isolated genital warts on the external female genitalia.

Taner ZM, Taskiran C, Onan AM, Gursoy R, Himmetoglu O.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Gazi University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey. mztaner@yahoo.com
Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the value of 85% trichloroacetic acid (TCA) in the treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated genital warts of the external genitalia and to detect the recurrence rate and side effects of this therapeutic regimen.

STUDY DESIGN: All patients with a suspected HPV-related papillary vulvar lesion after initial examination underwent vulvoscopic evaluation with a magnification of 8-20x using acetic acid and toluidine blue. Under local anesthesia, biopsies were taken from acuminate or papillary warts for histopathologic confirmation and from suspicious areas to exclude preinvasive or invasive diseases. Following histopathologic diagnosis, patients were treated with 85% TCA.

RESULTS: Overall, 51 patients with isolated vulvar and/or perianal genital warts were included. Of those patients, 11 (21.5%) had acuminate and 40 (78.5%) had papular genital warts. All the women had lesions of the labia minora. The other localizations were as follows: labia majora, 18 (35.3%); lateral vulva, 5 (9.8%); clitoris, 9 (17.6%); fourchette, 16 (31.3%); and perianal area, 7 (13.7%). All lesions were successfully treated by the end of the treatment period (median, 4; range 2-5). None of the patients had recurrence or new lesions during the 6-month follow-up period. In the second 6 months, 9 patients (17.6%) were diagnosed with recurrent lesions. Although all the patients experienced transient burning pain during therapy, none of them discontinued the therapy. Ulceration was observed in 8 patients (15.6%). Of those patients only 3 had permanent scarring (5.8%).

CONCLUSION: We recommend the use of TCA in patients with external genital warts, especially for mild to moderate cases. It is associated with a high success rate and low morbidity if sufficient care is taken during application.

PMID: 17694970 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Publication Types, MeSH Terms, Substances
Publication Types:

* Clinical Trial

MeSH Terms:

* Adult
* Alphapapillomavirus/drug effects
* Caustics/therapeutic use*
* Condylomata Acuminata/drug therapy*
* Female
* Humans
* Treatment Outcome
* Trichloroacetic Acid/therapeutic use*
* Vulva/drug effects*
* Vulva/pathology
* Vulva/virology

Substances:

* Caustics
* Trichloroacetic Acid

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Therapeutic value of trichloroacetic acid in the treatment of isolated genital warts on the external female genitalia

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