George Soros, enigmatic financier, liberal philanthropist dies at XX

For archival due to removed news.

Backup to Forbes’ Scribd copy

http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/04/18/soros-george-b-aug-idUSL2N0CR1TF20130418

George Soros, enigmatic financier, liberal philanthropist dies at XX

By Todd Eastham

WASHINGTON, XXX | Thu Apr 18, 2013 5:41pm EDT

(Reuters) – George Soros, who died XXX at age XXX, was a predatory and hugely successful financier and investor, who argued paradoxically for years against the same sort of free-wheeling capitalism that made him billions.

He was known as “the man who broke the Bank of England” for selling short the British pound in 1992 and helping force the United Kingdom to withdraw from the European Exchange Rate Mechanism, which devalued the pound and earned Soros more than $1 billion.

And his Soros Fund Management was widely blamed for helping trigger the Asian financial crisis of 1997, by selling short the Thai baht and Malaysian ringgit.

“Subsequently, Prime Minister Mahatir of Malaysia accused me of causing the crisis, a wholly unfounded accusation,” Soros wrote in The Crisis of Global Capitalism: Open Society Endangered,” in 1998.

“We were not sellers of the currency during or several months before the crisis; on the contrary … we were purchasing ringgits to realize profits on our earlier speculation.”

Still, economist Paul Krugman, was one of many observers who accused Soros of helping trigger the crisis.

In 1999, Krugman wrote that “nobody who has read a business magazine in the last few years can be unaware that these days there really are investors who not only move money in anticipation of a currency crisis, but actually do their best to trigger that crisis for fund and profit.”

Still, Soros has written extensively on the folly of what he has called free market “fundamentalism,” the belief of many conservative economists that markets will correct themselves with no need for government intervention.

In Soros’ view, markets and investors are subject to “mood” swings, or a prevailing positive or negative bias which can be exploited by savvy investors but which inevitably lead to damaging market bubbles and boom/bust cycles.

An enigma, wrapped in intellect, contradiction and money.

A Jew born in Hungary as the Nazis were gaining power in Germany, Soros survived World War Two and then emigrated to Great Britain, where he earned a degree from the London School of Economics in 1952, and landed his first job in the financial industry largely through pure stubborn chutzpah.

OPEN SOCIETY INSTITUTE

While at the London School, Soros studied under the economist and philosopher Karl Popper and a main vehicle for his philanthropy, the Open Society Institute, is named for Popper’s two-volume work, “The Open Society and Its Enemies.”

In that work, Popper develops the philosophy of reflexivity, a theory first articulated by William Thomas in the 1920s that posits that individual biases enter into market transactions, coloring the perception of economic fundamentals. Soros has attributed his own financial success in part to his understanding of the reflexive effect.

Key to understanding that effect is recognizing when markets are in a condition of near-equilibrium, or in disequilibrium. Soros has observed that when markets are rising or falling rapidly, they are typically marked by rising disequilibrium, and the dispassionate investor can capitalize on that recognition.

While Soros has benefited enormously from this understanding (Forbes put his wealth in 2013 at $19 billion, making him the world’s 30th richest person, not counting the roughly $8 billion he has given away through various charitable entities he controls), he has argued nevertheless for strong central government regulation to correct for and counterbalance the excesses of greed, fear and the free market.

Popper’s idea of fallibilism, which posits that anything one believes may in fact be wrong, is another key principle that has guided Soros in his career, and his philanthropy.

Soros’ philanthropy since the 1970s, when he began funding the studies of black students at the University of Cape Town in South Africa, has been marked as much by his personal journey as by the needs of the communities he has set out to serve.

His efforts through the Open Society Institute and the Soros Foundations have been skewed toward the effort to promote democratic values in the post-Soviet economies of Central and Eastern Europe, where he witnessed the rise of communism in Hungary after World War Two.

“The bulk of his enormous winnings (as an investor and speculator) is now devoted to encouraging transitional and emerging nations to become ‘open societies,'” former Federal Reserve Chairman Paul Volcker wrote in the foreword to Soros’ “The Alchemy of Finance” (2003).

“Open,” Volcker wrote, “not only in the sense of freedom of commerce but – more important – tolerant of new ideas and different modes of thinking and behavior.”

PHILANTHROPY, POLITICS

Soros also pledged $50 million in 2006 to the Millennium Promise, led by economist Jeffrey Sachs, to provide educational, agricultural and medical aid to help poor villages in Africa. And the Open Society Institute has expanded its giving to more than 60 countries around the world, giving away roughly $600 million a year.

Soros was an early supporter of the peaceful transformation of the Solidarity movement in Poland and Open Society Institute programs were considered by many Western observers to be a key factor in the success of the “Rose Revolution” in Georgia.

While his philanthropy has earned him friends around the world, his political giving has earned him both friends and enemies. Former President George W. Bush, who Soros blamed for turning the United States into “the main obstacle to a stable and just world order,” was perhaps the biggest single target of his political wrath.

“By declaring a ‘war on terror’ after Sept. 11, we set the wrong agenda for the world,” Soros told Newsweek magazine in a 2006 interview. “When you wage war, you inevitably create innocent victims.”

In a bid to stop Bush’s re-election, Soros donated $23.5 million to more than 500 liberal and progressive groups during the 2003-2004 U.S. election cycle.

Other causes that have attracted Soros’ generosity include drug policy reform. He donated $1.4 million to promote California’s Proposition 5 in 2008, a failed initiative that would have expanded drug rehabilitation programs as alternatives to prison for non-violent drug offenders, and $400,000 to the successful 2008 Massachusetts initiative to decriminalize possession of less than an ounce (28 grams) of marijuana.

He has also been a vocal supporter of the right to die in dignity, revealing in 1994 that he had offered to help his own mother, a member of the Hemlock Society, commit suicide.

While Soros’ life has been marked by remarkable success in his far-flung endeavors, it has not been without defeat. His investment in France’s Societe Generale following Jacques Chirac’s aggressive program of privatization led to charges of insider trading, which he disputed, and eventual conviction and the payment of a small penalty.

And he was a minority partner in a group that failed to acquire the Washington Nationals Major League baseball team.

But these failings stand out in the life of this remarkably successful Hungarian-American financier, philanthropist and thinker, in contrast to his stubborn refusal to fail in virtually every other venture.

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Vertical flux of energy into the lower ionosphere from internal gravity waves generated in the troposphere

www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/1962/JZ067i002p00745.shtml

adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1962JGR….67..745G

dx.doi.org/10.1029/JZ067i002p00745

JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 67, NO. 2, PP. 745–757, 1962
doi:10.1029/JZ067i002p00745

Vertical flux of energy into the lower ionosphere from internal gravity waves generated in the troposphere

Earl E. Gossard (Earl Everett Gossard)

U.S. Navy Electronics Laboratory, San Diego, California

It has been suggested by C.O. Hines that internal atmospheric gravity waves may account for many of the irregularities observed in the lower ionosphere and that these waves may have their origin in the large energy regions of the lower troposphere. The problem of vertical energy flow in the gravity-wave range of the atmospheric spectrum is examined in the present paper. Observational data on tropospheric internal waves are used to compute the energy density spectra and the spectra of vertical energy flux. It is found that a window can exist at periods of about 10 minutes to 2 hours through which fairly large amounts of energy sometimes flow out of the troposphere. Observational data at D-layer and meteor heights are compared with observations of tropospheric internal waves.

Received 21 September 1961; .

Citation: Gossard, E. E. (1962), Vertical flux of energy into the lower ionosphere from internal gravity waves generated in the troposphere, J. Geophys. Res., 67(2), 745–757, doi:10.1029/JZ067i002p00745.

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Structural analysis of the Valles Marineris fault zone: Possible evidence for large-scale strike-slip faulting on Mars

lithosphere.gsapubs.org/content/4/4/286.abstract

lithosphere.geoscienceworld.org/content/4/4/286.abstract

First published online June 4, 2012,
doi: 10.1130/​L192.1
Lithosphere August 2012 v. 4 no. 4 p. 286-330

Structural analysis of the Valles Marineris fault zone: Possible evidence for large-scale strike-slip faulting on Mars

1. An Yin*

– Author Affiliations

1.
Department of Earth and Space Sciences and Institute for Planets and Exoplanets (IPLEX), University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1567, USA, and Structural Geology Group, China University of Geosciences (Beijing), Beijing 100083, China

Abstract

Despite four decades of research, the origin of Valles Marineris on Mars, the longest trough system in the solar system, remains uncertain. Its formation mechanism has been variably related to rifting, strike-slip faulting, and subsurface mass removal. This study focuses on the structural geology of Ius and Coprates Chasmata in southern Valles Marineris using THEMIS (Thermal Emission Imaging System), Context Camera (CTX), and HiRISE (High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment) images. The main result of the work is that the troughs and their plateau margins have experienced left-slip transtensional deformation. Syntectonic soft-sediment deformation suggests the presence of surface water during the Late Amazonian left-slip tectonics in Valles Marineris. The total left-slip motion of the southern Valles Marineris fault zone is estimated to be 150–160 km, which may have been absorbed by east-west extension across Noctis Labyrinthus and Syria Planum in the west and across Capri and Eos Chasmata in the east. The discovery of a large-scale (>2000 km in length and >100 km in slip) and rather narrow (<50 km in width) strike-slip fault zone by this study begs the question of why such a structure, typically associated with plate tectonics
on Earth, has developed on Mars.

* Received 14 December 2011.
* Revision received 1 April 2012.
* Accepted 3 April 2012.

Georef No.: 12-059602
Title: Structural analysis of the Valles Marineris fault zone; possible evidence for large-scale strike-slip faulting on Mars

Author: Yin, An
Corporate Source: University of California at Los Angeles, Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Los Angeles, CA, United States
Publisher: Geological Society of America, Boulder, CO, United States
Source: Lithosphere vol. Pre-Issue Publication
Date: 20120604 46 p.
Country of Publication: United States
ISSN: 1941-8264 Refs.: 99
Document Type: Serial
Bibliographic Level: Analytic
Illustrations: illus. incl. 1 table, sketch maps
Language: English
URL: S _http://lithosphere.gsapubs.org/
Abstract: Despite four decades of research, the origin of Valles Marineris on Mars, the longest trough system in the solar system, remains uncertain. Its formation mechanism has been variably related to rifting, strike-slip faulting, and subsurface mass removal. This study focuses on the structural geology of Ius and Coprates Chasmata in southern Valles Marineris using THEMIS (Thermal Emission Imaging System), Context Camera (CTX), and HiRISE (High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment) images. The main result of the work is that the troughs and their plateau margins have experienced left-slip transtensional deformation. Syntectonic soft-sediment deformation suggests the presence of surface water during the Late Amazonian left-slip tectonics in Valles Marineris. The total left-slip motion of the southern Valles Marineris fault zone is estimated to be 150-160 km, which may have been absorbed by east-west extension across Noctis Labyrinthus and Syria Planum in the west and across Capri and Eos Chasmata in the east. The discovery of a large-scale (>2000 km in length and >100 km in slip) and rather narrow (<50 km in width) strike-slip fault zone by this study begs the question of why such a structure, typically associated with plate tectonics
on Earth, has developed on Mars.
Descriptors: Asia; California; Coprates Chasmata; Dead Sea Rift; Eos Chasmata; faults; HiRISE; interplanetary comparison; Mars; Middle East; Noctis Labyrinthus; planets; remote sensing; San Andreas Fault; strike-slip faults; structural analysis; Syria Planum; terrestrial planets; THEMIS; United States; Valles Marineris
Section Headings: 16 (Structural geology); 04 (Extraterrestrial geology);
Georef Update: 201215

GeoRef, Copyright 2012, American Geosciences Institute. Reference includes data from GeoScienceWorld, Alexandria, VA, United States Reference includes data supplied by the Geological Society of America, Boulder, CO, United States

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Also found on SlideShare, sent by APODman2k Aug 11, 2012

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Bunch anomalies in SR-IR time domain emission

Bunch anomalies in SR-IR time domain emission

This paper appears in:
Infrared Millimeter and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz), 2010 35th International Conference on
Date of Conference: 5-10 Sept. 2010
Author(s): Zangari, G.
Frascati Nat. Labs., INFN, Frascati, Italy
Page(s): 1 – 2
Product Type: Conference Publications

Abstract

A novel complex of time domain beam diagnostic tools integrated with SHT congruent calculus shows for the first time a direct evidence of a delayed component in the SR-IR emission of relativistic bunches of electrons and positrons at DAΦNE and HLS (Hefei Light Source). This evidence may lead to a paradox within the fundamental postulates of Special Relativity which implies a different value of light speed in vacuum. If it will not be considered valid, the paradox may be solved by discarding the “Rigid Bunch Model” in order to allow the bunch of relativistic particles to behave and evolve dynamically through a major collection of degrees of freedom, therefore exhibiting internal modes and/or “super-motions”.

On page(s): 1
Conference Location :  Rome
Print ISBN: 978-1-4244-6655-9
INSPEC Accession Number: 11624260
Digital Object Identifier :  10.1109/ICIMW.2010.5613070
Date of Current Version :   28 October 2010
Issue Date :   5-10 Sept. 2010

Index Terms

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Conference Schedule

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Experimental simulation of the effects of increased geomagnetic activity upon nocturnal seizures in epileptic rats

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9132690
dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3940(97)13446-2
www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304394097134462

Neuroscience Letters

Volume 224, Issue 1, 7 March 1997, Pages 53–56

  • Received 8 December 1996. Revised 11 February 1997. Accepted 12 February 1997. Available online 23 July 1997.

Keywords

  • Geomagnetic activity;
  • Overt limbic seizures;
  • Nocturnal epilepsy;
  • Red light;
  • Experimental magnetic fields;
  • Rats

Neurosci Lett. 1997 Mar 7;224(1):53-6.
Experimental simulation of the effects of increased geomagnetic activity upon nocturnal seizures in epileptic rats.
Michon AL, Persinger MA.
Source

Behavioral Neuroscience Laboratory, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada.
Abstract

This experiment was designed to simulate experimentally the specific parameters of geomagnetic activity that evoke epileptic seizures. The numbers of overt limbic seizures (rearing, paroxysmal forelimb clonus and falling) in a population of epileptic rats were recorded nightly for 65 successive days between 0200 and 0400 h during red light conditions. On some nights an experimental 7 Hz magnetic field whose magnitudes shifted in successive steps from zero to approximately 50 nT every 3 min was presented. The partial regression coefficients from the analysis indicated that either the presence of the ‘synthetic’ geomagnetic activity or increased magnitudes of the daily, natural geomagnetic activity (regional range approximately 10-70 nT) during the observational period significantly (P < 0.05) increased the proportion of nightly seizures. The effect sizes (6-8%) for both magnetic sources were comparable and additive. Concerted efforts to experimentally simulate the temporal profiles of geomagnetic activity may help reveal the neuromechanisms by which biobehavioral changes during geomagnetic perturbations occur within susceptible populations.

PMID:
9132690
[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

MeSH Terms
MeSH Terms

* Animals
* Circadian Rhythm*
* Epilepsy/physiopathology*
* Magnetics*
* Male
* Rats
* Rats, Wistar

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Experimental simulation of the effects of sudden increases in geomagnetic activity upon quantitative measures of human brain activity: Validation of correlational studies

Neuroscience Letters 516 (2012) 54– 56
Volume 516, Issue 1, 10 May 2012, Pages 54–56
Neurosci Lett. 2012 May 10;516(1):54-6. Epub 2012 Mar 28.
PMID: 22484013
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22484013
www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304394012004387
dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2012.03.054

Experimental simulation of the effects of sudden increases in geomagnetic
activity upon quantitative measures of human brain activity: Validation of correlational studies
Bryce  P. Mulligan a,1 , Michael A. Persinger a,b,c,∗

a Behavioural Neuroscience Laboratory, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada P3E 2C6
b Department of Biology, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada P3E 2C6
c Biomolecular Sciences Program, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada P3E 2C6

Article history:
Received 2 December 2011
Received in revised form 16 March 2012
Accepted 19 March 2012

  • Received 2 December 2011. Revised 16 March 2012. Accepted 19 March 2012. Available online 28 March 2012.

Keywords:
Geomagnetic activity simulation
Heliobiology
Quantitative EEG
Theta activity
ELF magnetic fields
Nanotesla range

Abstract

Previous correlations between geomagnetic activity and quantitative changes in electroencephalographic power revealed particular associations with the right parietal lobe for theta activity and the right frontal region for gamma activity. In the present experiment subjects were exposed to either no field (sham conditions) or to either 20 nT or 70 nT, 7 Hz, amplitude modulated (mHz range) magnetic fields for 30 min. Quantitative electroencephalographic (QEEG) measurements were completed before, during, and after the field exposures. After about 10 min of exposure theta power over the right parietal region was enhanced for the 20 nT exposure but suppressed for the 70 nT exposure relative to sham field exposures. The effect dissipated by the end of the exposure. These results support the contention that magnetic field fluctuations were primarily responsible for the significant geomagnetic–QEEG correlations reported in several studies.

Highlights

► Simulates theta power changes shown by geomagnetic correlations. ► Experimental effect occurs over same brain region. ► Cerebral power shifts require 10 min thus minimizing artifact. ► Major effect in 20 nT range rather than higher intensity. ► Pattern of field designed to imitate a sudden magnetic commencement.

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The devastating Muzaffarabad earthquake of 8 October 2005: New insights into Himalayan seismicity and tectonics

Gondwana Research

Volume 9, Issue 4, June 2006, Pages 365–378

Gondwana Research 9 (2006) 365–378

GR Focus

The devastating Muzaffarabad earthquake of 8 October 2005: New insights
into Himalayan seismicity and tectonics

N. Purnachandra Rao a,⁎, P. Kumar a, Kalpna a, T. Tsukuda b, D.S. Ramesh a,b

a National Geophysical Research Institute, Uppal Road, Hyderabad 500007, India
b Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113, Japan

Received 26 November 2005; accepted 23 January 2006
Available online 20 March 2006

Abstract
The recent earthquake of 8 October 2005 in the Muzaffarabad region in western Himalaya destroyed several parts of Pakistan and the north
Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. The earthquake of magnitude 7.6 claimed more than 80,000 lives, clearly exposing the poor standards of
building construction — a major challenge facing the highly populated, earthquake prone, third world nations today. In this paper, we examine
variations in the stress field, seismicity patterns, seismic source character, tectonic setting, plate motion velocities, GPS results, and the
geodynamic factors relating to the geometry of the underlying subsurface structure and its role in generation of very large earthquakes. Focal
mechanism solutions of the Muzaffarabad earthquake and its aftershocks are found to have steep dip angles comparable to the Indian intra-plate
shield earthquakes rather than the typical Himalayan earthquakes that are characterized by shallow angle northward dips. A low p-value of 0.9 is
obtained for this earthquake from the decay pattern of 110 aftershocks, which is comparable to that of the 1993 Latur earthquake in the Indian
shield — the deadliest Stable Continental Region (SCR) earthquake till date. Inversion of focal mechanisms of the Harvard CMT catalogue
indicates distinct stress patterns in the Muzaffarabad region, seemingly governed by an overturned Himalayan thrust belt configuration that
envelops this region, adjoined by the Pamir and Hindukush regions. Recent developments in application of seismological tools like the receiver
function technique have enabled accurate mapping of the dipping trends of the Moho and Lithosphere–Asthenosphere Boundary (LAB) of Indian
lithosphere beneath southern Tibet. These have significantly improved our understanding of the collision process, the mechanism of Himalayan
orogeny and uplift of the Tibetan plateau, besides providing vital constraints on the seismic hazard threat posed by the Himalaya. New ideas have
also emerged through GPS, macroseismic investigations, paleoseismology and numerical modeling approaches. While many researchers suggest
that the Himalayan front is already overdue for several 8.0 magnitude earthquakes, some opine that most of the front may not really be capable of
sustaining the stress accumulation required for generation of great earthquakes. We propose that the occurrence of great earthquakes like those of
1897 in Shillong and 1950 in Assam have a strong correlation with their proximity to multiple plate junctions conducive for enormous stress build
up, like the eastern Himalayan syntaxis comprising the junction of the India, Eurasia plates, and the Burma, Sunda micro-plates.

Keywords: Great earthquakes; Himalaya; Indian plate; Muzaffarabad earthquake; Seismic hazard; Stress inversion

ScienceDirect
doi 10.1016/j.gr.2006.01.004

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